“समय का फैलाव” – समय की हमारी धारणा धीमी हो गई है

महामारी और सामाजिक अलगाव कैसे बदल गया है कि हम समय बीतने को कैसे देखते हैं।

महामारी के शुरुआती चरणों में, अपने घरों तक सीमित रहने वालों में से अधिकांश ने कहा कि उन्हें लगा कि समय धीमा चल रहा है और परिणामस्वरूप वे अकेलापन महसूस कर रहे हैं।

पत्रिका की एक रिपोर्ट के अनुसार विज्ञान आगे बढ़ता है, [{” attribute=””>COVID-19 pandemic has altered how individuals perceive the passing of time.

The majority of research participants (65%) reported feeling that time was moving more slowly at the conclusion of the first month of social isolation, which occurred in May 2020. This perception was termed by the researchers as “time expansion,” and they discovered that it was linked to feelings of isolation and a lack of enjoyable activities throughout the time period.

Even more people (75%) said they didn’t experience as much “time pressure,” which is the sensation that time is passing more quickly and leaving less time for activities of daily living and recreation. 90% of those surveyed claimed they were taking shelter at home during that time.

“We followed the volunteers for five months to see if this ‘snapshot’ of the start of the pandemic would change over time. We found that the feeling of time expansion diminished as the weeks went by, but we didn’t detect significant differences with regard to time pressure,” André Cravo, first author of the article, told Agência FAPESP. Cravo is a professor at the Federal University of ABC in São Paulo state, Brazil.

The research started on May 6, when 3,855 participants recruited via social media responded to a ten-item online questionnaire and completed a simple task meant to test their ability for short interval estimation (pressing start and stop buttons in 1, 3, and 12 seconds). They were then questioned about their daily activities the week before (including whether they had finished all required tasks and how much time they had set aside for leisure) as well as how they were feeling right now (happy, sad, lonely, etc).

“They were invited to return every week for further sessions, but not everyone did,” Cravo said. “In the final analysis, we considered data for 900 participants who answered the questionnaire for at least four weeks, albeit not all consecutively.”

Using time awareness scales from 0 to 100 that are standard for this type of survey, the researchers analyzed the answers and calculated the two parameters – time expansion and time pressure – to see whether they increased or decreased week by week.

“Besides a rise or fall on the scales, we also analyzed the factors that accompanied the changes. During the five-month period, we observed a similar pattern: in weeks when participants reported feeling lonely and experiencing less positive affect, they also felt time pass more slowly. In highly stressful situations, they felt time pass more quickly,” Cravo said.

When the first set of answers to the question on the passage of time was compared with the second, provided at the end of the first month of confinement, perceptions of time expansion had risen 20 points while time pressure had fallen 30 points, according to Raymundo Machado, a scientist at the Brain Institute of the Albert Einstein Jewish Hospital (HIAE) in São Paulo, and last author of the article. “These results are evidently affected by memory bias, however, because no measurements were made before the pandemic,” he said.

Time slowed most for younger participants early in the pandemic, when compliance with social distancing rules was strictest. Except for age, demographic factors such as household size, occupation, and gender, had no influence on the results.

For the authors, this may be an effect of the sample profile. Most of the volunteers (80.5%) lived in the Southeast region. A large majority were women (74.32%). Most had completed secondary school, and a great many even had a university degree (71.78%). In terms of income, roughly a third were upper middle class (33.08%). Sizable minorities worked in education (19.43%) and healthcare (15.36%).

“This is typical of online surveys, where a majority are women living in the Southeast with high levels of formal education. The influence of demographics might have been more evident if the sample had represented the Brazilian population better,” Machado said.

Internal clock

Although the pandemic changed participants’ perceptions of the passage of time, it apparently did not affect their ability to sense duration, measured by the button-pressing task. “All of us are able to estimate short intervals. When the results of this time estimation test [including overestimation and underestimation of the intervals] उनकी तुलना समय-जागरूकता स्कोर से की गई, और कोई संबंध नहीं था,” मचाडो ने कहा।

क्रावो के अनुसार, वैज्ञानिक साहित्य के साक्ष्य इंगित करते हैं कि यह महसूस करना कि समय धीमा या तेज बीत रहा है, मुख्य रूप से दो कारकों से प्रभावित होता है: किसी दिए गए संदर्भ में समय का महत्व, और इसकी अप्रत्याशितता। उदाहरण के लिए, यदि आपको काम के लिए देर हो रही है [so that time is relevant in the context] और मुझे बस का इंतज़ार करना है [unpredictable timing]आपकी अत्यधिक धारणा है कि मिनट नहीं गुजरते हैं। जब आप छुट्टी पर हों और मौज-मस्ती कर रहे हों, तो यह समय नहीं है और ऐसा लगता है कि यह उड़ रहा है।

जब हम पिछली स्थितियों को याद करते हैं तो अक्सर धारणा बदल जाती है। “जब आप याद करते हैं कि आपने छुट्टी पर क्या किया था, तो लगता है कि समय अधिक समय तक चला। इसके विपरीत, जब आप लाइन में खड़े होते हैं, तो समय बहुत धीरे-धीरे गुजरता है लेकिन जब आपको बाद में स्थिति याद आती है, तो ऐसा लगता है कि यह जल्दी समाप्त हो गया। , “क्रावो ने कहा।

COVID-19 महामारी के मामले में, लोग सामाजिक दूरी की अवधि के दौरान समय बीतने को कैसे याद रखेंगे यह अज्ञात है। “कई बार मील के पत्थर, जैसे कार्निवल, जून त्योहार और जन्मदिन, को पिछले दो वर्षों में छोड़ना पड़ा है, इसलिए सवाल खुला रहता है,” उन्होंने निष्कर्ष निकाला।

संदर्भ: “सामाजिक गड़बड़ी के दौरान अनुभव का समय: ब्राजील में COVID-19 महामारी के शुरुआती महीनों के दौरान एक अनुदैर्ध्य अध्ययन” आंद्रे मैकिओली क्रावो, गुस्तावो ब्रिटो डी अज़ेवेदो, क्रिस्टियानो मोरेस बेलाची अजारियास, लुईस कैथरीन बार्नी, फर्नांडा डेंटास ब्यूनो, और राफेल द्वारा मार्ग। डि कैमार्गो, वैनेसा कार्नेइरो मोरिता, एसाव वेंचुरा बोबो सीरियस, रेनान शियावोलिन रेसियो, माट्यूस सिल्वेस्ट्रिन और रायमुंडो मचाडो डी अज़ेवेदो नेटो, 13 अप्रैल, 2022, विज्ञान आगे बढ़ता है।
डीओआई: 10.1126 / sciadv.abj7205

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